Event Scheduled for Apr 5, 2013
Event: BME Seminar: Student Presentations Presented By: Joseph Mummert, Emily Jacobs, and Rena Eudy
Location: ROWE 320 at Storrs & Videoconference to UCHC-Low Learning Center
Time: 12:00 pm
Details of Event:
“Aortic Tissue-stent Mechanical Interaction in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement”
Presented By: Joseph Mummert
Abstract: Since the first procedure in 2002, there has been an explosive growth in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). By the end of 2011, about 50,000 TAVRs have been performed worldwide. Short- and medium-term outcomes after TAVR are encouraging with significant reduction in rates of death. However, adverse events associated with TAVR have been detected, including stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral embolism, injury to the aorta, perivalvular leak, and access site injury. Furthermore, long-term durability and safety of these valves are largely unknown and need to be evaluated and studied carefully. Successful deployment and function in TAVR is heavily reliant on the tissue-stent interaction. For instance, excessive radial force of the stent may cause aortic injury, while insufficient force may lead to paravalvular leakage and device migration. Therefore, a better understanding of the aortic tissue-TAV interaction is critical to TAVR success. The present study described an experimental study to measure expansion forces of self-expanding TAV stents, investigate aortic tissue behaviors, and examine rupture potential after the stents were deployed into ovine and porcine hearts.
“Sodium Citrate Stabilized Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Cisplatin”
Presented By: Emily E. Jacobs
Abstract: Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (nanoCaP) are an attractive vehicle for the delivery of anti-cancer compounds due to their biocompatibility, low cost, and ease of manufacture. Drug delivery vehicles offer a means of reducing anti-cancer side effects, which are commonly experienced in patients with current cancer treatments. Previously we have shown that nanoCaP stabilized particles demonstrate sustained delivery of cisplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic (CDDP), as well as decreased in vivo toxicity, (animal weight loss); however the previously tested stabilized particles result in decreased cytotoxicity, as evident by an increased 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), and decreased in vivo efficacy as compared to the free drug. Here we describe the characterization and in vitro and in vivo efficacy of sodium citrate (citrate) stabilized nanoCaP that carry cisplatin. We hypothesized that if citrate is a successful stabilizer then 1) citrate added to CaP with CDDP will be nano-sized, 2) citrate nanoCaP with CDDP will be cytotoxic in vitro, and 3) citrate nanoCaP with CDDP will demonstrate efficacy inhibiting tumor growth in vivo without any observed significant drug toxicity (animal weight loss). Our findings show that citrate stabilized nanoCaP with CDDP are cytotoxic and inhibit tumor growth; however CDDP alone is most effective in vitro and in vivo. These results are most likely due to citrate interference with CDDP activity. Additional stabilizers for calcium phosphate need to be identified that do not interfere with CDDP activity in order to improve upon cytotoxicity and in vivo efficacy.
“Mechanistic Models of Multiple Sclerosis”
Presented By: Rena Eudy
Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) represents a therapeutic area of tremendous unmet need. The lack of validated biomarkers within this research area represent a challenge for computation biologists as they try to relate disease pathology to clinical outcomes in a meaningful way. Existing models of the immune system and autoimmunity as it relates to MS are currently T-cell-centric, as much of what was known about inflammatory pathways revolved around T cell populations. Recent studies indicate B cells play a more prominent role than what was previously believed. In a new computational model of MS, a larger-scale approach will include representations of immune activity in the periphery as well as within the central nervous system. Interactions of several cell types represented in this model will quantitatively link molecular mechanisms to clinical outcomes for development of improved therapies for MS.
Sponsored By: Biomedical Engineering
Pamphlet/Flyer: View file here