Dr. Willis research is focused on engineering when nanometers count. Future technologies that utilize nanotechnology principles will require manufacturing precision that isn’t yet achievable. Moreover, nanostructures have proportionately more surface area than larger structures, which places significantly greater importance on control of interfaces and free surfaces. We are working on solar-plasmonic devices for solar energy harvesting that require sub-nm precision control of nanostructures. These devices focus and concentrate solar energy into plasmonic cavities for direct solar-electric conversion. Nanostructures are also key to a new generation of electronic nose sensors with a broad range of applications from commercial to homeland security. We are integrating nanostructures with biomolecular sensing elements for enhanced specificity.